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【6h】Exploring the Facilitators and Barriers of Cognitive Engagement among Ninth Grade Students in Accelerated Curricula.

机译在速成课程中探索九年级学生认知参与的促进因素和障碍。

【摘要】Cognitive engagement has been linked to positive outcomes such as academic achievement (Eccles & Wang, 2012). However, students' level of cognitive engagement tend to decline as students move into middle childhood and adolescence (Archambault, Janosz, Morizot, & Pagani, 2009; Wang & Eccles, 2012a; Wiley & Hodgen, 2012). In addition, two out of three high school students nationwide reported feeling bored at school because the academic tasks are not interesting or relevant (Yazzie-Mintz, 2006). In regard to this matter, researchers have examined factors that relate to cognitive engagement. Most of the existing research is quantitative in nature and only involves students who are low or average achievers. This study addressed this gap in the literature by examining the facilitators and barriers of cognitive engagement from the perspective of high-achieving students with qualitative methods. Participants were ninth grade students in accelerated curricula (i.e., enrolled in Advanced Placement classes or International Baccalaureate Diploma program). A mixed-method sequential design was utilized. Forty-seven participants who scored at the top or bottom 10% on indicators of cognitive engagement, specifically the Goal Valuation and the Motivation/Self-Regulation subscales of School Assessment of Attitudes Survey-Revised (SAAS-R) were identified from a larger sample of 320 freshmen. Among the selected participants, 13 were invited and 12 took part in the qualitative part of the study--- individual interviews. A generic approach, focusing on the constant-comparative method, was used to analyze data generated from interviews. The qualitative analyses revealed nine themes. The first theme provided context to the voices of participants, including why they decided to join accelerated curricula and how their experiences in AP/IB classes have been. The next five themes were related to the facilitators of cognitive engagement. It includes (a) students' role, (b) teachers' role, (c) parents' role, (d) school connectedness, and (e) technology's role. Finally, the last three themes addressed barriers to cognitive engagement. Participants shared that some (a) student characteristics, such as mindset and life circumstance, (b) negative academic experiences, and (c) distractions deterred them from being cognitively engaged in their AP/IB coursework. Collectively, most of the themes generated from this study aligned with the findings from past research, except some themes from past studies were not found in this study. This study also discovered new themes that expanded upon the past literature's understanding on ways to promote and remove barriers that hinder cognitive engagement. Consistent with the theories of other researchers, the results of this study showed that the three different types of student engagement (i.e., cognitive, behavioral, emotional engagement) are interrelated to each other. This study also found relatively little differences in the sentiments provided by participants who self-reported higher or lower level of cognitive engagement. Implications of this study include expanding the current literature body on facilitators and barriers of cognitive engagement. The results of this study also serve as a general guidebook for educators of AP/IB students to (a) create a learning environment that promotes cognitive engagement, (b) suggest to students strategies that might increase their level of cognitive engagement, and (c) share with parents home-based strategies that may promote students' cognitive engagement. Future studies should focus on exploring the applicability of the findings on other student populations by conducting interviews with a more diverse set of participants (e.g., students with varying level of academic achievement) and further explore barriers to cognitive engagement.

【摘要机译】认知参与已与积极成果如学业成就联系在一起(Eccles&Wang,2012)。但是,随着学生进入童年和青春期,他们的认知参与水平趋于下降(Archambault,Janosz,Morizo​​t和Pagani,2009; Wang和Eccles,2012a; Wiley和Hodgen,2012)。此外,全国三分之二的高中生报告说,由于学习任务不有趣或没有意义,他们在学校感到无聊(Yazzie-Mintz,2006年)。关于这一问题,研究人员研究了与认知参与有关的因素。现有的大多数研究本质上都是定量的,只涉及成绩不佳或中等的学生。这项研究通过定性方法从高成就学生的角度研究认知参与的促进因素和障碍,从而解决了文献中的这一空白。参加者为速成课程的九年级学生(即,参加了高级选修课或国际文凭课程)。使用了混合方法顺序设计。从更大的样本中确定了47名参与者,这些参与者在认知参与度指标上得分最高或最低10%,尤其是对经态度评估的学校评估的目标评估和动机/自我调节子量表(SAAS-R) 320名新生。在选定的参与者中,邀请了13位参与者,有12位参与者参加了研究的定性部分-个人访谈。侧重于常数比较法的通用方法用于分析从采访中生成的数据。定性分析揭示了九个主题。第一个主题为参与者的声音提供了背景,包括他们为什么决定加入加速课程以​​及他们在AP / IB课程中的经历。接下来的五个主题与认知参与的促进者有关。它包括(a)学生的角色,(b)教师的角色,(c)父母的角色,(d)学校联系性,以及(e)技术的角色。最后,最后三个主题解决了认知参与的障碍。与会人员分享说,一些(a)学生特征,例如心态和生活环境,(b)负面的学术经历,以及(c)干扰使他们无法认知地从事AP / IB课程。总体而言,本研究产生的大多数主题与过去的研究结果相吻合,只是本研究中未发现过去研究的某些主题。这项研究还发现了新主题,这些主题扩展了过去文献对促进和消除阻碍认知参与的障碍的理解。与其他研究者的理论一致,本研究结果表明三种不同类型的学生参与度(即认知,行为,情感参与度)相互关联。这项研究还发现,自我报告较高或较低水平的认知参与的参与者所提供的情绪差异相对较小。这项研究的意义包括扩大有关促进和参与认知障碍的现有文献。这项研究的结果还可以作为AP / IB学生的教育者的一般指南,以(a)创建一个促进认知参与的学习环境,(b)向学生提出可能提高他们的认知参与水平的策略,以及(c )与家长分享基于家庭的策略,这些策略可以促进学生的认知参与度。未来的研究应着重于通过与更多参与者(例如学习成绩水平各异的学生)进行访谈来探索研究结果在其他学生群体中的适用性,并进一步探索认知参与的障碍。

【作者】Shum, Kai Zhuang.;

【作者单位】University of South Florida.;

【年(卷),期】2019(),

【年度】2019

【页码】176 p.

【总页数】176

【原文格式】PDF

【正文语种】eng

【中图分类】;

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